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Perovskite solar cell

Japan鈥檚 NEDO and Panasonic achieve 16.09% efficiency for large-area perovskite solar cell module

Panasonic Corporation has achieved an energy conversion efficiency of 16.09% for a perovskite solar module (Aperture area 802 cm2: 30 cm long x 30 cm wide x 2 mm thick) by developing lightweight technology using a glass substrate and a large-area coating method based on inkjet printing.

Japan鈥檚 NEDO and Panasonic achieve 16.09% efficiency for large-area perovskite solar cell module

This was carried out as part of the project of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), which is working on the “Development of Technologies to Reduce Power Generation Costs for High-Performance and High-Reliability Photovoltaic Power Generation” to promote the widespread adoption of solar power generation.

This inkjet-based coating method that can cover a large area reduces manufacturing costs of modules. In addition, this large-area, lightweight, and high-conversion efficiency module allows for generating solar power highly efficiently at locations where conventional solar panels were difficult to install, such as fa莽ades.

By focusing on the inkjet coating method that enables the raw material to be coated precisely and uniformly, Panasonic applied that technology to each layer of the solar cell including perovskite layer on glass substrate and realized high power conversion efficiency for a large-area module.


  • Improving component of perovskite precursor for suitable for ink-jet coating: among the atomic groups that formed perovskite crystal, methylamine has a thermal stability issue during the heating process during module production (methylamine is removed from perovskite crystal by heat, as a result, a certain part of crystal is destroyed). By altering certain part of methylamine into Formamidinium, Cesium, Rubidium that have appropriate atom diameter size, they revealed this method is efficient for crystal stabilization and leads to contribute to high power conversion efficiency.
  • Control of concentration, coating amount and coating speed of perovskite ink: in the thin film forming process with inkjet coating method, there is the flexibility for coating pattern, while dot patterning of material and crystallization uniformity over each layer surface are essential. To satisfy these requirements, both by tuning the concentration of perovskite ink to certain content and by precisely controlling coating amount and speed during printing process, they realized high power conversion efficiency of large-area module.

By optimizing these technologies through coating process in each layer formation, Panasonic succeeded in enhancing crystal growth and improving the uniformity for thickness and crystal layer. As a result, they achieved the power conversion efficiency of 16.09% and took a step forward to practical application.

Going forward, NEDO and Panasonic plan to continue to improve perovskite layer materials, aiming to achieve high efficiency comparable to that of crystalline silicon solar cells and establish technologies for practical application in new markets.

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Perovskite solar cell

New quality control method could help scale up perovskite solar cells

Researchers from Australia’s ARC Center of Excellence in Exciton Science, Monash University, Wuhan University of Technology and CSIRO Energy have shown how critical imperfections invisible to the naked eye can be detected by shining blue light onto the cells and recording the infrared light that bounces back.

New quality control method could help scale up perovskite solar cellsPerovskite solar cells bathed in blue light, and responding in infrared. Credit: Exciton Science

This “trick of the light” may help detect imperfections in perovskite solar cells, opening the door to improved quality control for commercial production.

When attempting to scale up perovskite cells, performance often deteriorates due to nanoscale surface imperfections resulting from the way the materials are made. As the number of detects grows, the amount of solar power generated per square centimeter drops.

Now,the Australian research team has come up with a possible solution – using a camera. The technique employs a property of solar cells called “photoluminescence”. This is the process by which an electron inside a molecule or semiconductor is briefly powered-up by an incoming photon. When the electron returns to its normal state, a photon is spat back out.

Microscale flaws alter the amount of infrared produced. Analyzing how the extent of the light emitted from the solar cell varies under different operating conditions gives clues to how well the cell is functioning.


“Using this technique, we can rapidly identify a whole range of imperfections,” said Dr. Rietwyk, an Exciton Science researcher based at Monash University and first author of the new paper. “We can then figure out if there are enough of them to cause a problem and, if so, adjust the manufacturing process to fix it. It makes for a very effective quality control method.”

Equivalent checking methods are common in silicon cell manufacture. By employing an innovative light modulation, Dr. Rietwyk and colleagues have designed a new approach that rises to the challenges posed by next-gen cells – opening a pathway to a scalable and potentially commercial device.

Senior author Professor Udo Bach, also of Exciton Science and Monash University, said the team had performed successful test runs on batches of small research cells. The technology, he explained, will be simple to scale up and commercialize.

“This research shows clearly that the performance of perovskite solar cell devices is influenced by the number of small imperfections in the cells themselves,” he said.

“Using light modulation to find these flaws is a quick and robust way to solve the problem – and one that should work on any level of production.”

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X-rays reveal in situ crystal growth of lead-free perovskite solar panel materials

LayTec’s new InspiRe in-situ tool used for monitoring perovskite formation

Germany-based in-situ metrology system maker LayTec has announced that its new InspiRe system applies high-speed in-situ reflectance measurements for monitoring perovskite thin-film formations during spin-coating and subsequent annealing. In collaboration with professor Norbert Nickel’s group at HZB, LayTec designed the InspiRe in-situ metrology system, which was applied to monitor both spin-coating and annealing. Gathering data at a time resolution on the millisecond scale allows resolving of the kinetics and phase formations during film formation. While spin-coating, the absorption behavior and the thinning of precursor solution is monitored. The absorption edge (i.e. band gap) of the deposited perovskite film is derived directly during annealing. Spectral changes during annealing indicate ‘over-annealing’ after the desired bandgap has been achieved. This methodology allows the systematic study of film formation during two crucial process steps…

University of Groningen scientists are investigating in situ how lead-free perovskite crystals form and how the crystal structure affects the functioning of the solar cells, as part of their quest to find alternatives to lead-based perovskites.

The best results in solar cells have been obtained using perovskites with lead as the central cation. As this metal is toxic, tin-based alternatives have been developed, for example, formamidinium tin iodide (FASnI3). This is a promising material; however, it lacks the stability of some of the lead-based materials. Attempts have been made to mix the 3D FASnI3 crystals with layered materials, containing the organic cation phenylethylammonium (PEA). “My colleague, Professor Maria Loi, and her research team showed that adding a small amount of this PEA produces a more stable and efficient material,” says Assistant Professor Giuseppe Portale. “However, adding a lot of it reduces the photovoltaic efficiency”.

Perovskites have been studied for a long time by Professor of Photophysics and Optoelectronics Maria Loi, while Portale developed an X-ray diffraction technique that allows him to study the rapid formation of thin films in real-time during spin-coating from solution. On a laboratory scale, the perovskite films are generally made by spin coating, a process in which a precursor solution is delivered onto a fast-spinning substrate. Crystals grow as the solvent evaporates. At the beamline BM26B-DUBBLE at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France, Portale investigated what happens during the tin-perovskite film formation.

“Our initial idea, which was based on ex situ investigations, was that the oriented crystals grow from the substrate surface upwards”, Portale explains. However, the in situ results showed the opposite: crystals start to grow at the air/solution interface. During his experiments, he used 3D FASnI3 with the addition of different amounts of the 2D PEASnI4. In the pure 3D perovskite, crystals started to form at the surface but also in the bulk of the solution. However, adding a small amount of the 2D material suppressed bulk crystallization and the crystals only grew from the interface.

“PEA molecules play an active role in the precursor solution of the perovskites, stabilizing the growth of oriented 3D-like crystals through coordination at the crystal’s edges. Moreover, PEA molecules prevent nucleation in the bulk phase, so crystal growth only takes place at the air/solvent interface,” Portale explains. The resulting films are composed of aligned 3D-like perovskite crystals and a minimal amount of 2D-like perovskite, located at the bottom of the film. The addition of low concentrations of the 2D material produces a stable and efficient photovoltaic material, while the efficiency drops dramatically at high concentrations of this 2D material.

The experiments by Portale and Loi may explain this observation: “The 2D-like perovskite is located at the substrate/film interface. Increasing the content of the 2D material to above a certain amount causes the formation of an extended 2D-like organic layer that acts as an insulator, with detrimental effect for the device’s efficiency.” The conclusion of the study is that the formation of this insulating layer must be prevented to achieve a highly efficient and stable tin-based perovskite. “The next step is to realize this, for example by playing with solvents, temperature or specific perovskite/substrate interactions that can break up the formation of this thick insulating layer.”


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Arc Melting in Glovebox

Details Quantity: 5 – 20 g per charge Temperature: up to 3500°C, depending on quantity Generator: outside of glovebox Connection: 230 V / 50/60 Hz (different voltage on request) Crucible plate: standard crucible plate or customized crucible plates Options: Special cold crucible (suction casting), Vacuum pump, Turbomulecular pumping system HVT52/G, High vacuum gauge, Water flow control, Recirculating chiller Description For oxygen-sensitive samples to be handled and alloyed in inert gas atmosphere • Melting chamber and movable electrode inside of glovebox • Generator, vacuum pump and operating panel at the outside • Designed for melting samples of approx. 5-20 g up to 3500°C, sufficient for most laboratory purposes • Small melting chamber ensures fast evacuation and low gas consumption • Freely movable, water-cooled electrode • Dismountable, water-cooled copper crucible plate with…

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Perovskite solar cell

Oxford PV hopes to deliver perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells within a year

Oxford PV recently stated that it hopes to deliver perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells to high end solar module manufacturers in the first half of 2021, now less than a year away.

Oxford PV hopes to deliver perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells within a year

The group expects these solar cells to have an efficiency between 26-27%, to increase in efficiency by 1% per year as the company improves its manufacturing techniques. It was said that initially, a 400 watt 60-cell solar module will probably be available.

Oxford PV’s CEO, Frank P. Averdung on the timeline for these cells being available to the market: ”All of our facilities (in Brandenburg) are in place to accommodate equipment. The initial equipment arrived, and we intend to have this Meyer Burger heterojunction line installed by mid year. The dedicated perovskite equipment will be installed during the second half of the year, with the full line running by the end of the year. By mid 2021, we’ll be at full production”.

Oxford PV says at full production capacity they’ll produce 125 MW/year of solar cells. As well, the infrastructure in the Brandenburg facility is enough to quickly double that capacity.


Oxford PV uses processes and equipment they’ve designed that apply layers of a “wide bandgap perovskite.” CTO Chris Case noted: ”It’s just thin layers of perovskite. We’re building an integrated solar cell production line of heterojunction bottom cells, and attaching to that a production line of a couple of additional tools that add these specialized layers. In the end, out comes boxes of standard looking solar cells – but with higher efficiency”.

Oxford PV assumes they’ll first sell into the 60 cell residential solar module market. This makes sense as the market does tend to pay more for its modules and seeks higher efficiencies. the expectation is to spread out to other markets soon after.

The company says their hardware can adjust to larger sized solar cells now being manufactured. Which fits in with another business plan – the integration of Oxford PV machines into already existing heterojunction solar module lines around the world. T

Covid-19’s need for isolation has led to a restructuring of the Brandenburg solar line assembly group into two independent teams. The cross trained engineers are concurrently working on both line and process integration.

It was noted though, if the Covid work shut down goes beyond three months, timelines will be stressed. Averdung said: ”Things are dependent on each other. First, the facility needs to be ready, we are there. Second, Meyer Burger needs to deliver the heterojunction line, and they have! We are extremely pleased with them, all the tools came in when expected. Another is that the existing pilot line need give enough wafers to build a significant number of modules for precertification. Panels must go into testing in Q3. If the pilot line is down – if work stoppages are extended – then that will have an impact”.

Oxford says work has slowed a bit, but even with the teams completely avoiding each other, timelines are currently intact.

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Perovskite diodes enable bidirectional optical signal transmission between two identical devices

LayTec’s new InspiRe in-situ tool used for monitoring perovskite formation

Germany-based in-situ metrology system maker LayTec has announced that its new InspiRe system applies high-speed in-situ reflectance measurements for monitoring perovskite thin-film formations during spin-coating and subsequent annealing. In collaboration with professor Norbert Nickel’s group at HZB, LayTec designed the InspiRe in-situ metrology system, which was applied to monitor both spin-coating and annealing. Gathering data at a time resolution on the millisecond scale allows resolving of the kinetics and phase formations during film formation. While spin-coating, the absorption behavior and the thinning of precursor solution is monitored. The absorption edge (i.e. band gap) of the deposited perovskite film is derived directly during annealing. Spectral changes during annealing indicate ‘over-annealing’ after the desired bandgap has been achieved. This methodology allows the systematic study of film formation during two crucial process steps…

Researchers at Linkæžšping University, in collaboration with colleagues in China, have developed a tiny unit that is both an optical transmitter and a receiver. “This is highly significant for the miniaturization of optoelectronic systems,” says LiU professor Feng Gao.

Chunxiong Bao, postdoc at Linkæžšping University, types in a sentence on a computer screen, and the same sentence immediately appears on the neighboring screen, optically transferred from one diode to another. The diode is made from perovskite.

Perovskites have the useful property of both detecting and emitting light. The team has now developed a diode that can be directed in two directions: it can receive optical signals and it can just as easily transmit them. This means that text and photographs can be wirelessly transmitted from one unit to the other and back again, using two identical units. And so rapidly that we experience it as happening in real time.

In the autumn of 2018, Chunxiong Bao discovered the most suitable perovskite to build a photodetector showing higher performance and longer lifetime, and described this in an article. The development of light-emitting diodes from perovskites has also made rapid progress. Weidong Xu, postdoc at Linkæžšping University, developed a perovskite light-emitting diode with an efficiency of 21% last year, which is among the best in the world. What the scientists have now achieved is the development of a perovskite that comprises a light-emitting diode and that at the same time is an excellent photodetector.

All optical communication requires rapid and reliable photodetectors – devices that capture light and convert it into an electrical signal. Current optical communication systems use photodetectors made from materials such as silicon and indium gallium arsenide. These are, however, expensive and they cannot be used in applications that require low weight, flexibility, or large surfaces.

“In order to demonstrate the potential of our diode with double function, we have built a monolithic sensor that detects heart beats in real time, and an optical, bidirectional communication system,” says Chunxiong Bao, researcher in the Division of Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.


This tiny unit that can both receive and transmit optical signals provides a unique opportunity to simplify and shrink the functionality of the current optical systems, in particular given that it can also be integrated with traditional electronic circuits.

“We have managed to integrate optical signal transmission and reception into one circuit, something that makes it possible to transmit optical signals in both directions between two identical circuits. This is valuable in the field of miniaturized and integrated optoelectronics,” says Feng Gao, professor and head of research at the Division of Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.

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Arc Melting in Glovebox

Details Quantity: 5 – 20 g per charge Temperature: up to 3500°C, depending on quantity Generator: outside of glovebox Connection: 230 V / 50/60 Hz (different voltage on request) Crucible plate: standard crucible plate or customized crucible plates Options: Special cold crucible (suction casting), Vacuum pump, Turbomulecular pumping system HVT52/G, High vacuum gauge, Water flow control, Recirculating chiller Description For oxygen-sensitive samples to be handled and alloyed in inert gas atmosphere • Melting chamber and movable electrode inside of glovebox • Generator, vacuum pump and operating panel at the outside • Designed for melting samples of approx. 5-20 g up to 3500°C, sufficient for most laboratory purposes • Small melting chamber ensures fast evacuation and low gas consumption • Freely movable, water-cooled electrode • Dismountable, water-cooled copper crucible plate with…

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Perovskite solar cell

Tackling perovskite solution aging issues could benefit solar cells and promote commercialization

The aging process of the perovskite solution used to fabricate solar cells makes the solution unstable, leading to poor efficiency and poor reproducibility of the devices. Reactants and preparation conditions also contribute to poor quality. To tackle these issues, a research team from the Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) has studied the aging process of perovskite solution and proposed a way to avoid side reactions.

Tackling perovskite solution aging issues could benefit solar cells and promote commercialization

Prof. PANG Shuping, corresponding author of the paper, said “an in-depth understanding of fundamental solution chemistry had not kept up with rapid efficiency improvements in perovskite solar cells, even though such cells have been studied for 10 years… Normally, we need high temperature and a long time to fully dissolve the reactants, but some side reactions can happen simultaneously,” said Prof. PANG. “Fortunately, we have found a way to inhibit them.”

Achieving a highly stable perovskite solution is especially important in commercializing perovskite solar cells, since it will be easier to make devices with high consistency, said Prof. PANG.

WANG Xiao, an associate professor at QIBEBT and the first author of the paper, said side condensation reactions happen when methylammonium iodide and formamidinium iodide coexist in the solution. They represent the main side reactions in aging perovskite solution, although other side reactions between solute and solvent can occur at very high temperature.

FAN Yingping, a graduate student at the Qingdao University of Science and Technology (QUST) and the co-first author of the paper, studied many methods for stopping unwanted side reactions, but finally found that the stabilizer triethyl borate, with low boiling point, was very effective. FAN also noted that it’s a “clean” stabilizer, because it can be fully removed from the film during the following thermal annealing treatment.


With this new stabilizer, the researchers claim that the reproducibility of the perovskite solar cells has improved greatly. “Now, we don’t need to make fresh solutions every time before we make devices,” said Prof. CUI Guanglei from QIBEBT, who noted that the finding is “very important” for the fabrication of perovskite modules.

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Efficient tandem solar cell developed using wide bandgap perovskites

An international research team has developed a new type of solar cell that can both withstand environmental hazards and is 26.7% efficient in power conversion.

Efficient tandem solar cell developed using wide bandgap perovskitesStructure and photovoltaic performance for the perovskite-Si tandem device. Image by KAIST

The researchers, led by Byungha Shin, a professor from the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at KAIST, focused on developing a new class of light-absorbing material, called a wide bandgap perovskite. The material has a highly effective crystal structure that can process the power needs, but it can become problematic when exposed to environmental hazards, such as moisture. Researchers have made some progress increasing the efficiency of solar cells based on perovskite, but the material reportedly has greater potential than what was previously achieved.

To achieve better performance, Shin and his team built a double layer (tandem) solar cell, in which two or more light absorbers are stacked together to better utilize solar energy. To use perovskite in these tandem devices, the scientists modified the material’s optical property, which allows it to absorb a wider range of solar energy. The modification of the optical property of perovskite, however, comes with a price – the material becomes vulnerable to the environment, in particular, to light.

To counteract the wide bandgap perovskite’s delicate nature, the researchers engineered combinations of molecules composing a two-dimensional layer in the perovskite, stabilizing the solar cells.

“We developed a high-quality wide bandgap perovskite material and, in combination with silicon solar cells, achieved world-class perovskite-silicon tandem cells,” Shin said.


The development was only possible due to the engineering method, in which the mixing ratio of the molecules building the two-dimensional layer are carefully controlled. In this case, the perovskite material not only improved efficiency of the resulting solar cell but also gained durability, retaining 80% of its initial power conversion capability even after 1,000 hours of continuous illumination. This is the first time such a high efficiency has been achieved with a wide bandgap perovskite single layer alone, according to Shin.

“Such high-efficiency wide bandgap perovskite is an essential technology for achieving ultra-high efficiency of perovskite-silicon tandem (double layer) solar cells,” Shin said. “The results also show the importance of bandgap matching of upper and lower cells in these tandem solar cells.”

The researchers, having stabilized the wide bandgap perovskite material, are now focused on developing even more efficient tandem solar cells that are expected to have more than 30% of power conversion efficiency.

“Our ultimate goal is to develop ultra-high-efficiency tandem solar cells that contribute to the increase of shared solar energy among all energy sources,” Shin said. “We want to contribute to making the planet healthier.”

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea, the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning, the Ministry of Trade Industry and Energy of Korea, and the U.S. Department of Energy.

Other contributors include Daehan Kim, Jekyung Kim, Passarut Boonmongkolras, Seong Ryul Pae and Minkyu Kim, all of whom affiliated with the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at KAIST. Other authors include Byron W. Larson, Sean P. Dunfield, Chuanxiao Xiao, Jinhui Tong, Fei Zhang, Joseph J. Berry, Kai Zhu and Dong Hoe Kim, all of who are affiliated with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Colorado. Dunfield is also affiliated with the Materials Science and Engineering Program at the University of Colorado; Berry is also affiliated with the Department of Physics and the Renewable and Sustainable Energy Institute at the University of Colorado Boulder; and Kim is also affiliated with the Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering at Sejong University. Hee Joon Jung and Vinayak Dravid of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Northwestern University; Ik Jae Park, Su Geun Ji and Jin Young Kim of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Seoul National University; and Seok Beom Kang of the Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering of Sejong University also contributed.

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Perovskite solar cell

LayTec’s new InspiRe in-situ tool used for monitoring perovskite formation

LayTec’s new InspiRe in-situ tool used for monitoring perovskite formation

Germany-based in-situ metrology system maker LayTec has announced that its new InspiRe system applies high-speed in-situ reflectance measurements for monitoring perovskite thin-film formations during spin-coating and subsequent annealing. In collaboration with professor Norbert Nickel’s group at HZB, LayTec designed the InspiRe in-situ metrology system, which was applied to monitor both spin-coating and annealing. Gathering data at a time resolution on the millisecond scale allows resolving of the kinetics and phase formations during film formation. While spin-coating, the absorption behavior and the thinning of precursor solution is monitored. The absorption edge (i.e. band gap) of the deposited perovskite film is derived directly during annealing. Spectral changes during annealing indicate ‘over-annealing’ after the desired bandgap has been achieved. This methodology allows the systematic study of film formation during two crucial process steps…

Germany-based in-situ metrology system maker LayTec has announced that its new InspiRe system applies high-speed in-situ reflectance measurements for monitoring perovskite thin-film formations during spin-coating and subsequent annealing.

LayTec's new InspiRe in-situ tool used for monitoring perovskite formation

In collaboration with professor Norbert Nickel’s group at HZB, LayTec designed the InspiRe in-situ metrology system, which was applied to monitor both spin-coating and annealing. Gathering data at a time resolution on the millisecond scale allows resolving of the kinetics and phase formations during film formation.

While spin-coating, the absorption behavior and the thinning of precursor solution is monitored. The absorption edge (i.e. band gap) of the deposited perovskite film is derived directly during annealing. Spectral changes during annealing indicate ‘over-annealing’ after the desired bandgap has been achieved.

This methodology allows the systematic study of film formation during two crucial process steps for identifying optimization routes and for implementing a rigid quality control scheme for upscaling and industrialization.

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Above are LayTec’s new InspiRe in-situ tool used for monitoring perovskite formation web publication,Hope can help you.

Arc Melting in Glovebox

Details Quantity: 5 – 20 g per charge Temperature: up to 3500°C, depending on quantity Generator: outside of glovebox Connection: 230 V / 50/60 Hz (different voltage on request) Crucible plate: standard crucible plate or customized crucible plates Options: Special cold crucible (suction casting), Vacuum pump, Turbomulecular pumping system HVT52/G, High vacuum gauge, Water flow control, Recirculating chiller Description For oxygen-sensitive samples to be handled and alloyed in inert gas atmosphere • Melting chamber and movable electrode inside of glovebox • Generator, vacuum pump and operating panel at the outside • Designed for melting samples of approx. 5-20 g up to 3500°C, sufficient for most laboratory purposes • Small melting chamber ensures fast evacuation and low gas consumption • Freely movable, water-cooled electrode • Dismountable, water-cooled copper crucible plate with…

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Arc Melting

Arc Melting in Glovebox

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Details

Quantity: 5 – 20 g per charge
Temperature: up to 3500°C, depending on quantity
Generator: outside of glovebox
Connection: 230 V / 50/60 Hz (different voltage on request)
Crucible plate: standard crucible plate or customized crucible plates
Options: Special cold crucible (suction casting), Vacuum pump, Turbomulecular pumping system HVT52/G, High vacuum gauge, Water flow control, Recirculating chiller

Description

For oxygen-sensitive samples to be handled and alloyed in inert gas atmosphere
• Melting chamber and movable electrode inside of glovebox
• Generator, vacuum pump and operating panel at the outside

• Designed for melting samples of approx. 5-20 g up to 3500°C,
sufficient for most laboratory purposes

• Small melting chamber ensures fast evacuation and low gas consumption

• Freely movable, water-cooled electrode

• Dismountable, water-cooled copper crucible plate with trough-shaped moulds

• Crucible plates with customized moulds on request

• Reliable, contactless ignition of the arc

• Powerful arc melting generator, in a separate housing

• Pressure manometer and valves for evacuation and gas inlet into the arc melting chamber

• Small roughing pump or turbomolecular pumping system (stand-alone unit)
for evacuation of the melting chamber

• Safety functions:
Protection against overtemperature, eye protection.

• Connection : 230 V / 50/60 Hz / 1-phase

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Cypher AFM

Operate your Cypher AFM in a turnkey glovebox

Operate your Cypher AFM in a turnkey glovebox for the most demanding environmental control under low oxygen and low water (sub-ppm) conditions. Our fully integrated glovebox solutions are engineered to deliver maximum usability and performance.

  • Superior AFM performance with no compromises
  • Gas purification system with variable speed blower is separated from the glovebox to minimize vibrational coupling
  • Options range from basic, low-cost configurations to those with MBraun’s most advanced options
  • Cypher Glovebox Option