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Perovskite solar cell

Perovskites can work together with QDs to improve LED and solar technologies

Dyesol gets ready to launch a Major Area Demonstration Prototype for its perovskite PV technology

Dyesol, global leader in the development and commercialization of Perovskite Solar Cells (PSC), has announced that it has appointed VDL Enabling Technologies Group to assist in the development of a Major Area Demonstration Prototype. The 1st Phase contract involves a specialist engineering study resulting in the preparation of a Feasibility & Functional Specification for Perovskite Major Area Demonstrator development. This phase will be conducted over a 4 month period commencing immediately. It is expected that upon the successful completion of the initial study, a 2nd Phase of design and development will follow, and the 3rd Phase will be Realization. The 3 phase project is expected to be completed in the 1st half of 2017. Dyesol considers the manufacture of a Major Area Demonstration Prototype as a critical step in the…

Researchers from the Universitat Jaume I and the Universitat de València have studied the interaction of two materials, halide perovskite and quantum dots, revealing significant potential for the development of advanced LEDs and more efficient solar cells.

The researchers quantified the “exciplex state” resulting from the coupling of halide perovskites and colloidal quantum dots. Both known separately for their optoelectronic properties, but when combined, these materials yield longer wavelengths than can be achieved by either material alone, plus easy tuning properties that together have the potential to introduce important changes in LED and solar technologies.

Quantum dots (QDs) are a family of semiconductor materials with very interesting light-emitting properties, including the ability to tune what wavelengths light is emitted at. They are also useful in both LEDs and solar cells. Combining QDs and perovskites creates a new exciplex state in which light can be emitted at much longer wavelengths, reaching well into the infrared spectrum, while also allowing control over its emission color via applied voltage.

Each material —the perovskite, the QDs and the new exciplex state— emits light at a different color, each of which can be weighted within the overall light emission to pick out the desired color. This means LEDs can be designed that emit light over both the visible and infrared spectrum simultaneously, which has applications in the field of telecommunications.

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Perovskite nanowires and carbon nanotubes make for a highly responsive photodetector’

Researchers at EPFL have designed an ultra-sensitive carbon nanotube-based photodetector, sensitized with perovskite nanowires which make it highly responsive. While carbon nanotubes are often used in photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices, light detection with pristine carbon-nanotube field-effect phototransistors is currently limited to the range of 10% quantum efficiency (the responsivity of the best carbon nanotube devices is around 0.1 A/W). Using perovskites, EPFL scientists have now fabricated a carbon-nanotube photodetector with responsivity as high as 7.7脳105 A/W.The researchers at EPFL built the device and overlaid it with perovskite (CN3NH3PbI3) nanowires to sensitize its light-detection capacity. The extremely high performance is a result of the two materials working together: the perovskite nanowires can convert incoming light into free charge-carriers with high efficiency, while the carbon nanotube transfers the electrons to the detection…

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Perovskite solar cell

Dyesol gets ready to launch a Major Area Demonstration Prototype for its perovskite PV technology

Dyesol gets ready to launch a Major Area Demonstration Prototype for its perovskite PV technologyDyesol, global leader in the development and commercialization of Perovskite Solar Cells (PSC), has announced that it has appointed VDL Enabling Technologies Group to assist in the development of a Major Area Demonstration Prototype.

The 1st Phase contract involves a specialist engineering study resulting in the preparation of a Feasibility & Functional Specification for Perovskite Major Area Demonstrator development. This phase will be conducted over a 4 month period commencing immediately. It is expected that upon the successful completion of the initial study, a 2nd Phase of design and development will follow, and the 3rd Phase will be Realization. The 3 phase project is expected to be completed in the 1st half of 2017.

Dyesol considers the manufacture of a Major Area Demonstration Prototype as a critical step in the successful scale-up and commercialization of its revolutionary 3rd generation Perovskite Solar Cell PV technology. The prototypes are expected to be of a size and performance comparable with existing PV panels. However, their projected cost and versatility of application are expected to be superior. This will ultimately translate into a lower Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE), an essential attribute for the successful displacement of traditional or fossil-fuel sources of electricity.

The prototypes will be used for accreditation, demonstration, validation and product showcasing. Subject to commercial contract, VDL and its associate companies have formed the intention to work with Dyesol over the longer term and at the various stages of the scale-up of production. 

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Perovskite solar cell

Perovskite nanowires and carbon nanotubes make for a highly responsive photodetector’

Researchers at EPFL have designed an ultra-sensitive carbon nanotube-based photodetector, sensitized with perovskite nanowires which make it highly responsive.

Perovskite nanowires and carbon nanotubes make for a highly responsive photodetector'

While carbon nanotubes are often used in photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices, light detection with pristine carbon-nanotube field-effect phototransistors is currently limited to the range of 10% quantum efficiency (the responsivity of the best carbon nanotube devices is around 0.1 A/W). Using perovskites, EPFL scientists have now fabricated a carbon-nanotube photodetector with responsivity as high as 7.7脳105 A/W.The researchers at EPFL built the device and overlaid it with perovskite (CN3NH3PbI3) nanowires to sensitize its light-detection capacity. The extremely high performance is a result of the two materials working together: the perovskite nanowires can convert incoming light into free charge-carriers with high efficiency, while the carbon nanotube transfers the electrons to the detection circuit.

In addition, the team found that high-powered light can turn the normally conducting device into an insulator. This last feature means that the device performs three-state logic operations, which can be used in digital optoelectronics, allowing multiple circuits to share the same output line or lines.

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New method for growing perovskite nanowires could increase solar cell efficiency

Water molecules’ behavior on perovskite surfaces offers important tools for surface and materials research

Researchers at TU Wien (Vienna) explored the long-standing question of how water molecules behave when they attach to a perovskite surface, by using scanning tunneling microscopes and computer simulations. While usually only the outermost atoms at the surface are of importance, in perovskites the deeper layers are important, too. The team studied strontium ruthenate – a typical perovskite material that has a crystalline structure containing oxygen, strontium and ruthenium. When the crystal is broken apart, the outermost layer consists of only strontium and oxygen atoms; the ruthenium is located underneath, surrounded by oxygen atoms. A water molecule that lands on this surface splits into two parts: A hydrogen atom is stripped off the molecule and attaches to an oxygen atom on the crystal’s surface. This process is known as dissociation. However,…

Researchers at EPFL in Switzerland have designed a standardized way to make nanowires out of perovskite, by guiding the growth of perovskite nanowires with nanofluidic channels. The researchers used a single-step, “slip-coating” method to produce the first ever nanowires from methylammonium lead iodide, a material that has attracted attention for its ability to absorb light and produce electrical current in response.

Nanowires are extremely thin, and perovskite nanowires make outstanding candidates for the efficient transport of electrons and excitons – the recyclable “holes” that electrons leave behind when they move as a current. Using nanowires could increase the efficiency of solar cells, because the wires act as “direct conductive highways” to transmit current more efficiently.

The problem is that it is difficult to grow the billions of nanowires needed for applications with the exact same length and diameter. The challenge, therefore, is to control the growth of perovskite nanowires in a way that can produce a 2D surface that could be used in a solar cell. Using nanofluidic channels in an automated way, the researchers were able to produce tens of thousands of parallel nanowires on a silicon surface. The growth process was visualized in real-time with a simple optical microscope, which shed light into the crystal growth mechanism.

The technique represents a big step forward in nanowire technology. Because it is automated, it also paves the way towards fabrication of wafer-scale perovskite nanowire thin films, which are ideal for solar cells, but also for other optoelectronic devices, including lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and light detectors.

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Correlated Metal Films might someday replace ITO and improve perosvkite solar cells

Researchers at Pennsylvania State University have developed a transparent and electrically conductive material that could make large screen displays, smart windows, touch screens and solar cells more affordable and efficient. The material has the potential to replace indium tin oxide (ITO), the transparent conductor that is currently used for more than 90% of the display market but is expensive, scarce and brittle.  Along with display technologies, the researchers will investigate the new materials with a type of solar cell that uses organic perovskite materials. The team has reported a design strategy using 10 nm-thick films of an unusual class of materials called correlated metals. In most conventional metals, such as copper, gold, aluminum or silver, electrons flow like a gas. In correlated metals, such as strontium vanadate (a perovskite material)…

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Perovskite solar cell

EPFL team creates low-cost hole-transport material that improves efficiency of perovskite solar cells

A team of researchers at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) has engineered a hole-transporting material for perovskite solar cells that costs only a fifth of other existing material options, and offers an improved efficiency of 20.2%.

EPFL team creates low-cost hole-transport material that improves efficiency of perovskite solar cellsA 3D illustration of fluorine-dithiophene molecules on a surface of perovskite crystals.

EPFL developed a modified hole-transporting material – a simple dissymmetric fluorine-dithiophene (FDT). The researchers explain that FDT can be easily modified, meaning it could act as a blueprint for the next generation of low-cost hole-transporting materials.

The scientists state that the best performing perovskite solar cells use hole transporting materials, which are difficult to make and purify, and are prohibitively expensive, preventing market penetration. By comparison, FDT is easy to synthesize and purify, and its cost is estimated to be a fifth of that for existing materials — while matching, and even surpassing their performance.

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Scientists develop unique annealing process that increases efficiency of perovskite solar cells

Water molecules’ behavior on perovskite surfaces offers important tools for surface and materials research

Researchers at TU Wien (Vienna) explored the long-standing question of how water molecules behave when they attach to a perovskite surface, by using scanning tunneling microscopes and computer simulations. While usually only the outermost atoms at the surface are of importance, in perovskites the deeper layers are important, too. The team studied strontium ruthenate – a typical perovskite material that has a crystalline structure containing oxygen, strontium and ruthenium. When the crystal is broken apart, the outermost layer consists of only strontium and oxygen atoms; the ruthenium is located underneath, surrounded by oxygen atoms. A water molecule that lands on this surface splits into two parts: A hydrogen atom is stripped off the molecule and attaches to an oxygen atom on the crystal’s surface. This process is known as dissociation. However,…

Researchers at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln presented an innovation that could improve perovskite solar cells’ efficiency, pushing it forward on the way to rivaling silicon-based cells. The developed process increased the perovskite solar cells’ efficiency by more than 2 percentage points, to 19.4%, and the researchers also stress their hopes of achieving 25% efficiency in 3-5 years. 

The process  involves applying heat and a solvent to a chemical layer that transports energy absorbed by the perovskite to an electrode. Though the effects are not visible to the naked eye, this “solvent annealing” process is said to be similar to polishing a floor so that objects will move more easily across it. This process has been acknowledged by other researchers as “an important direction for further improving the efficiency of perovskite solar cells”.

Source: news.unl.edu 

 

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Correlated Metal Films might someday replace ITO and improve perosvkite solar cells

Researchers at Pennsylvania State University have developed a transparent and electrically conductive material that could make large screen displays, smart windows, touch screens and solar cells more affordable and efficient. The material has the potential to replace indium tin oxide (ITO), the transparent conductor that is currently used for more than 90% of the display market but is expensive, scarce and brittle.  Along with display technologies, the researchers will investigate the new materials with a type of solar cell that uses organic perovskite materials. The team has reported a design strategy using 10 nm-thick films of an unusual class of materials called correlated metals. In most conventional metals, such as copper, gold, aluminum or silver, electrons flow like a gas. In correlated metals, such as strontium vanadate (a perovskite material)…

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Perovskite solar cell

Polish researchers produce perovskites via mechanochemistry

Water molecules’ behavior on perovskite surfaces offers important tools for surface and materials research

Researchers at TU Wien (Vienna) explored the long-standing question of how water molecules behave when they attach to a perovskite surface, by using scanning tunneling microscopes and computer simulations. While usually only the outermost atoms at the surface are of importance, in perovskites the deeper layers are important, too. The team studied strontium ruthenate – a typical perovskite material that has a crystalline structure containing oxygen, strontium and ruthenium. When the crystal is broken apart, the outermost layer consists of only strontium and oxygen atoms; the ruthenium is located underneath, surrounded by oxygen atoms. A water molecule that lands on this surface splits into two parts: A hydrogen atom is stripped off the molecule and attaches to an oxygen atom on the crystal’s surface. This process is known as dissociation. However,…

Scientists at the Polish Academy of Sciences (IPC PAS) Warsaw University of Technology have designed a rapid and environmentally safe method of production of perovskite substances, by solid-state mechanochemical processes like grinding powders, rather than in solutions at a high temperature. The described process is said to be surprisingly simple and effective.

In the process, two powders are poured into the ball mill: a white one, methylammonium iodide CH3NH3I, and a yellow one, lead iodide PbI2. After several minutes of milling, no trace is left of the substrates. Inside the mill, there is only a homogeneous black powder: the perovskite CH3NH3PbI3, all done by reactions occurring only in solids at room temperature.

The mechanochemically manufactured perovskites were sent to the Ecole Polytechnique de Lausanne in Switzerland, where they were used to build a new laboratory solar cell. The performance of the cell containing the perovskite with a mechanochemical pedigree proved to be more than 10% greater than a cell’s performance with the same construction, but containing an analogous perovskite obtained by the traditional method, involving solvents.

The scientists also state that the mechanochemical method of synthesis of perovskites is the most environmentally friendly method of producing this class of materials. Simple, efficient and fast, it is ideal for industrial applications. 

The research will be developed within GOTSolar collaborative project funded by the European Commission under the Horizon 2020 Future and Emerging Technologies action.

Source: Phys.org


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Correlated Metal Films might someday replace ITO and improve perosvkite solar cells

Researchers at Pennsylvania State University have developed a transparent and electrically conductive material that could make large screen displays, smart windows, touch screens and solar cells more affordable and efficient. The material has the potential to replace indium tin oxide (ITO), the transparent conductor that is currently used for more than 90% of the display market but is expensive, scarce and brittle.  Along with display technologies, the researchers will investigate the new materials with a type of solar cell that uses organic perovskite materials. The team has reported a design strategy using 10 nm-thick films of an unusual class of materials called correlated metals. In most conventional metals, such as copper, gold, aluminum or silver, electrons flow like a gas. In correlated metals, such as strontium vanadate (a perovskite material)…

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Hybrid silicon/perovskite tandem solar cells to potentially reach 30% efficiency

Researchers from an Oxford-Berlin (Helmholtz-Zentrum) collaboration reported that an ultimate efficiency of 30% should be attainable with perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells. They discovered a structurally stable perovskite composition with its band gap tuned to an optimum value of 1.75 eV.

Hybrid silicon/perovskite tandem solar cells to potentially reach 30% efficiency

Tandem solar cells work by absorbing the high energy photons (visible light) in a top cell which generates a high voltage, and the lower energy photons (Infra red) in a rear cell, which generates a lower voltage. This increases the theoretical maximum efficiency by about 50% in comparison to a standalone silicon cell. To maximize efficiency, the amount of light absorbed in the top cell has to precisely match the light absorbed in the rear cell. However, the band gap of ~1.6eV of the standard perovskite material is too small to fully exploit the efficiency potential of this technology.

The scientists in this collaboration have shown that an ultimate efficiency of 30% should be attainable with such tandem cells. They designed a tandem cell, in a configuration where the perovskite and the silicon cell are mechanically stacked and contacted separately. The HZB team contributed the silicon cell. The Oxford group systematically varied the chemical composition of the perovskite layer, and with a precise mix of ions, discovered a structurally stable perovskite with its band gap tuned to an optimum value of 1.75 electron volts. At the same time, they increased the chemical and thermal stability of the material significantly.

Currently, cells with these sorts of efficiencies can be achieved, they’re just too expensive for widespread deployment; But if a perovskite layer could be added at a relatively low cost, it could shift the economics of installing photovoltaic hardware. The panels would be a bit more expensive, but they would produce a lot more electricity for the same installment costs.

Source: nanowerk


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A new electron transport layer increase power conversion efficiency in perovskite solar cells

A team of scientists from the School of Science and Engineering in Shanghai have developed a multi-functional inverse opal-like TiO2 electron transport layer (IOT-ETL) for a cost-efficient perovskite solar cell with high power conversion Efficiency.

A new electron transport layer increase power conversion efficiency in perovskite solar cells

The researchers introduced an IOT-ETL, produced by a simple polystyrene-assistant method. It was created to replace the traditional compact layer and mesoporous scaffold layer in perovskite solar cells. The new devise improved the light harvesting efficiency by enhancing the light scatting property in the devices.

For further improvement the thickness of electron transport layer (ETL) films and charge recombination between electrons holes were studied. The thickness of ETL films is closely related to the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of solar cells. By changing the speed of spin-coating with the same concentration of precursor solution the thickness was optimized. The highest PCE was found at 4000 rpm.

Improved light harvesting efficiency and charge transporting performance in IOT-ETL based PSCs yield high power conversion efficiency of 13.11%. This multifunctional inverse opal-like TiO2 based electron transport layer will be a promising photo-electrode for designing high-performance and low-cost perovskite solar cells. More importantly, it will pave the way for introducing photonics structure in perovskite solar cells.

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